Founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. A veteran politician, he was respected by his friends and foes alike for his knowledge and forthrightness. He outshined all other Ministers in the cabinet except perhaps Pandit Nehru by his erudition and culture.
Upadhyaya borrowed the Gandhian principles such as sarvodaya (progress of all), swadeshi (Indianisation), and Gram Swaraj (village self rule) and these principles were appropriated selectively to give more importance to cultural-national values.
Vajpayee introduced many domestic economic and infrastructural reforms, including encouraging the private sector and foreign investments, research and development and privatisation of some government owned corporations